Supplementary Material

BAA for Private Sector Partnership Addressing Emerging Zoonoses and Antimicrobial Resistance

1) References

Coker, R., Rushton, J., Mounier-Jack, S., Karimuribo, E., Lutumba, P., Kambarage, D., Pfeiffer, D.U., Stärk, K., Rweyemamu, M., 2011. Towards a conceptual framework to support one-health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. Lancet Infect. Dis. 11, 326–331.

Grace, D., Jost, C., Macgregor-Skinner, G.J., Mariner, J.C., 2008. Participation of small farmers in animal health programmes.

Häsler, B., Howe, K.S., Stärk, K.D., 2011. Conceptualising the technical relationship of animal disease surveillance to intervention and mitigation as a basis for economic analysis. BMC Health Serv. Res. 11, 225.

Hutchison, J., Mackenzie, C., Madin, B., Happold, J., Leslie, E., Zalcman, E., Meyer, A., Cameron, A., 2019. New approaches to aquatic and terrestrial animal surveillance: The potential for people and technology to transform epidemiology. Prev. Vet. Med. 167, 169–173.

Kelly, A., Osburn, B., Salman, M., 2014. Veterinary medicine’s increasing role in global health. Lancet Glob. Health 2, e379–e380.

Layton, D.S., Choudhary, A., Bean, A.G., 2017. Breaking the chain of zoonoses through biosecurity in livestock. Vaccine Kidlington 35, 5967–5973.

Perry, B.D., Grace, D., Sones, K., 2013. Current drivers and future directions of global livestock disease dynamics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 20871–20877.

Roca, I., Akova, M., Baquero, F., Carlet, J., Cavaleri, M., Coenen, S., Cohen, J., Findlay, D., Gyssens, I., Heure, O.E., Kahlmeter, G., Kruse, H., Laxminarayan, R., Liébana, E., López-Cerero, L., MacGowan, A., Martins, M., Rodríguez-Baño, J., Rolain, J.-M., Segovia, C., Sigauque, B., Tacconelli, E., Wellington, E., Vila, J., 2015. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention. New Microbes New Infect. 6, 22–29.

Sen, A., Chander, M., 2003. Privatization of Veterinary Services in Developing Countries: A Review. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 35, 223–236.

2) Economic factors influencing the failure of smallholder investment in animal health

From an economic point of view, some of the factors playing a role in the lack of smallholder investment include:

Moral Hazard

    Some farmers will underinvest in biosecurity based on the assumption that their neighbours will invest adequately, providing a degree of protection for the group

Perception of Risk

    Farmers may perceive that the risk of high consequence diseases (TADs, emerging zoonoses and AMR) is low, relative to endemic disease problems they face every day.

Low Income Elasticity

    Poor households may perceive investment in health as a luxury item.

Weakest Link

    If there are different levels of investment in health and biosecurity by smallholders in the same area, the overall level of biosecurity for the entire population is only as good as that practiced by worst smallholder.

3) iSIKHNAS Indonesia’s Integrated Animal Health and Production Information System

Commercially funded surveillance and animal health services will be based on lessons learned from the iSIKHNAS